有关P2考试，有些 EASY MARK 是一定要捡的，临考前我们再来说说 Ethics and Current Issues 那些事儿。
这部分在答题时先考虑 Professional issue，作为一个专业的会计人员应该如果处理；再考虑 Ethical issues。
如何判断是否有 Ethical issue 呢？
很简单，我们只要在题目里看看有没有句子说到 CFO 或者 Director 等人在做决策的时候涉及个人的利益，只要牵涉个人的利益，如想增加 Profit 和 Asset，减少 Expenses 和 Liability，关注公司的 Short term 利益，忽略 Sustainability 或者 Environment，体现了不 Fair 、不 Legal，涉及损害 Public interest 等，就是 Ethical issue 了。
● 判断是不是涉及ethical issue，找到题目里的motivation，讨论一下。
● Leases--Financial Lease vs.Operating Lease
● PPE--Capital expenditure. vs. Revenue expenditure.
● Intangibles--Research and development
● Goodwill--Fair value vs. Proportionate share
► Conflict of interest
Businesses are expected to be socially responsible as well as profitable. A company has accountability to a wide range of stakeholders, not just shareholders. There maybe a conflict of interest between corporate social responsibility and maximising shareholder wealth;
However, the two goals need not conflict. It is possible that being a good corporate citizen can improve business performance. Customers may buy from a company that they perceive as environmentally friendly and employees may remain loyal to such a company, and both these factors are likely to increase shareholder wealth in the long term
► ACCA's Code of Ethics and Conduct
Which requires its members to adhere to a set of fundamental principles in the course of their professional duty, such as confidentiality, objectivity, professional behaviour, integrity, professional competence and due care.
When facing an ethical dilemma, the accountant must apply his moral and ethical judgement. As a professional, he has a responsibility to present the truth fairly, and not to indulge in ‘creative accounting’ in response to pressure. He should therefore put the interests of the company and professional ethics first, and insist the financial report is an honest reflection of the current financial position.
► Acceptable accounting practice
If a treatment does not conform to acceptable accounting practice, it is not ethical. Acceptable accounting practice includes conformity with the qualitative characteristics set out in the Conceptual Framework particularly fair presentation and verifiability. Conformity with the Conceptual Framework precludes window-dressing transactions.
► Earnings management
All forms of earnings management may be ethically questionable, even if not illegal. Benefits of not manipulating earnings:
(ⅰ) Stakeholders can rely on the data.
(ⅱ) Management set an example to employees to work harder to make genuine profits, not arising from the manipulation of accruals.
(ⅲ) Focus on cash flow rather than accounting profits keeps management anchored in reality.
Earnings management goes against the principle of corporate social responsibility. Companies have duty not to mislead stakeholders. Because the temptation to indulge in earnings management may be strong, particularly in times of financial crisis, it is important to have ethical frameworks and guidelines in place. The letter of the law may not be enough